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The Belarusian People’s Republic was the first attempt to create an independent Belarusian state under name „Belarus”. See also: Latvia—Russia relations and Russians in Rus beat eu nu neg. Retrieved 6 October The Moscow Times. This section needs expansion. Inafter the Russian annexation of Crimea, the attitude to Russia changed sharply. Human Rights Watch. The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original PDF on 11 January Minsk: Navuka i tekhnika. Svalbard unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty. February 28, See also: Censorship in Belarus. Belarus: A Country Study.
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17% of Russian immigrants in the EU said that they had been victims of crimes the last 12 months, for example, theft, attacks, frightening threats or harassment, as compared to an average of 24% among several groups of immigrants and ethnic minorities.
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Main article: Politics of Belarus. Carnegie Moscow Center. The Soviet Union and communist China, — the arduous road to the Russ. Belarus bu, [a] officially the Republic of Rus beat eu nu neg[b] is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe. Retrieved 26 March The union of Russia and Belarusa supranational confederation, was established in a —99 series of treaties that called for monetary union, equal rights, single citizenship, and a common foreign and defense policy.
Müller, Jan-Werner ed. Music in Belarus largely comprises a rich Rus beat eu nu neg of folk and religious music. Hürriyet Daily News.
Google’s free service instantly translates words, phrases, and web pages between English and over other languages. Belarus, officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern hpv.iubescstudentia.ro is bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Covering an area of , square kilometres (80, sq mi) and with a population of million, Belarus is the thirteenth-largest and the twentieth-most populous country. Download the hpv.iubescstudentia.ro Desktop App. Play, connect, and discover—all in one place.
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Website belarus. Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 16 February See also: Etymology of Belarus. Main article: History of Belarus. Further information: Early Slavs. Further information: Kievan Rus’. Further information: Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth. Main articles: Geography of Belarus and Climate of Belarus. Main article: Politics of Belarus. Main article: Foreign relations of Belarus.
Main article: Armed Forces of Belarus. Further information: Regions of Belarus and Districts of Belarus.
Main article: Economy of Belarus. Main article: Demographics of Belarus. Main articles: Religion in Belarus and Languages of Belarus. Main article: Culture of Belarus. This article or section appears to be slanted towards recent events. Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective and add more content related to non-recent events. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Belarus at the Olympics. Main article: Telecommunications in Belarus. See also: Censorship in Belarus. Belarus portal Europe portal.
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According to information from prosecutors, Goychaev’s gang targeted Russians and murdered 10 in Chervlyonnaya Shelkovsky District, Republic of Chechnya between and Journalist Fatima Tlisova released an article in discussing the frequent occurrences of Russian Orthodox crosses being sawed off buildings and thrown off mountains in Circassia, due to the cross being associated with the people who initiated the mass expulsions of Circassians.
The Kremlin and its supporters are sometimes criticised for using allegations of „Russophobia” as a form of propaganda to counter criticism of government policy. In , poet and essayist Lev Rubinstein wrote that similarly to the term ” fascism „, the term „Russophobia” has become a political sticker slapped onto people who disagree with words or actions of people or organizations who position themselves as „Russian ones” in the ideological, rather than ethnic or geographical sense. After Nicholas II intensified russification policies and did not act following massacres by the Ottoman Empire against Armenians, anti-Russian sentiment among Armenian nationalist groups rose.
After the Russian government confiscated Armenian Church lands in , this led to attacks on Russian authorities and Armenians who cooperated with them by Armenians mobilised by the Dashnak party.
In July , during the Karabakh movement , the killing of an Armenian man and the injury of tens of others by the Soviet army in a violent clash at Zvartnots Airport near Yerevan sparked anti-Russian and anti-Soviet demonstrations.
The Black January massacre prior to Azerbaijani independence and Russia’s complicated role in the First Nagorno-Karabakh War between Azerbaijan and Armenia increased the negative perception of Russia. According to veteran German author, journalist and Russia-correspondent Gabriele Krone-Schmalz , there is deep disapproval of everything Russian in Estonia. According to Estonian philosopher Jaan Kaplinski , the birth of anti-Russian sentiment in Estonia dates back to , as there was little or none during the czarist and first independence period, when anti-German sentiment predominated.
Kaplinski states the imposition of Soviet rule under Joseph Stalin in and subsequent actions by Soviet authorities led to the replacement of anti-German sentiment with anti-Russian sentiment within just one year, and characterized it as „one of the greatest achievements of the Soviet authorities”.
Ever since Latvia regained its independence in various Russian officials, journalists, academics and pro-Russian activists have criticised Latvia for its Latvian language law and Latvian nationality law and repeatedly accused it of „ethnic discrimination against Russians”,  „anti-Russian sentiment”  and „Russophobia”.
In , research conducted by the Baltic Institute of Social Sciences titled „Ethnic tolerance and integration of the Latvian society” found that Latvian respondents on average rated their relations with Russians 7. Both groups believed that the ties between them were satisfactory, had not changed in the last five years and were to either remain the same or improve in the next five years.
Respondents did mention some conflicts on an ethnic basis , but all of them were classified as psycholinguistic such as verbal confrontations. On the other hand, results of a yearly poll carried out by the research agency „SKDS” showed that the population of Latvia was more split on its attitude towards the Russian Federation. The data wasn’t differentiated between the respondent ethnicities, so it has to be noted that between and , ethnic Russians made up more than a quarter of the population of Latvia.
According to The Moscow Times , Latvia’s fears of Russia are rooted in history, including conflicting views on whether Latvia and other Baltic States were occupied by the USSR or joined it voluntary, as well as the — June and March deportations that followed and most recently the annexation of Crimea that fueled a fear that Latvia could also be annexed by Russia. On a political level, Russians in Latvia have sometimes been targeted by anti-Russian rhetoric from some of the more radical members of both the mainstream and radical right parties in Latvia. Due to historical experiences, there is a fear prevailed in Lithuania that Russia has never stopped wanting to consolidate power over the Baltics , including fears of Russian plans for an eventual annexation of Lithuania as was seen in Crimea.
Ever since the independence of Moldova , Russia has been repeatedly accused by various local politicians and elected officials of meddling in Moldovan politics,  notably from Andrian Candu , a Moldovan senator. In October , statistics by the Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine said that positive attitudes towards Russians have been decreasing since This level of sentiment was not found in Southern or Eastern Ukraine. The right-wing political party „Svoboda” ,    has invoked radical anti-Russian rhetoric  and has electoral support enough to garner majority support in local councils,  as seen in the Ternopil regional council in Western Ukraine. After Ukraine regained its independence, only a small minority of nationalists expressed strong anti-Russian views; the majority hoped to have good relations with Russia.
In , after the Russian annexation of Crimea, the attitude to Russia changed sharply.
In , The New York Times reported after the Polish daily Gazeta Wyborcza that „relations between the nations are as bad as they have been since the collapse of the Soviet bloc in Hungary’s relations with Russia are shadowed by the Hungarian Revolution of which was crushed with the help of Russian troops  as well the Hungarian Revolution of which was brutally crushed by the Red Army and was followed by the mass arrest and imprisonment of Hungarians.
Anti-Russian sentiment dates back to the conflict between the Russian and Ottoman empires in the 18th and early 19th centuries and the ceding of part of the Moldavian principality to Russia by the Ottoman Empire in after its de facto annexation, and to the annexations during World War II and after by the Soviet Union of Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia and the policies of ethnic cleansing, Russification and deportations that have taken place in those territories against ethnic Romanians.
Soviet dominance over the Romanian economy was manifested through the so-called Sovroms , exacting a tremendous economic toll ostensibly as war-time reparations. The emergence of anti-Russian sentiment in the Danubian Principalities , the precursors to unified Romania which became independent of the Ottoman Empire with the Treaty of Adrianople concluding the Russo-Turkish War , arose from the post relationship of the Danubian Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia to Russia, and was caused by mutually economic and political grievances of two influential classes that were often odds also with each other.
As per the treaty, Russia was named the protector of the two principalities, allowed to occupy them, and also drafted a quasi-constitution known as the Organic Regulations which formed a powerful assembly of boyars the local landowning economic elite nominally under the authority of the less nominal prince, the document crafted with strong support from the boyars.
The boyars, a „reactionary oligarchy” as described by Misha Glenny, stopped short any hint of liberal reform, and the growing urban elite began to associate Russia with the slow progress of reform and the obstacles they faced in building an industrial base.
On the other hand, the boyars themselves began to sour on Russia during the s and s due to their economic conflict of interest with Russia. After the Ottomans withdrew from the three forts along the Danube basin, the boyars exploited the highly fertile land to drastically increase Romanian wheat production, such that eventually future Romania consisting of Wallachia unified with Moldavia would become the fourth-largest wheat producer in the world. Whereas before Wallachian and Moldavian wheat had been limited to Ottoman markets, Russia increasingly felt threatened by growing competition in its jurisdiction that it feared could drive down the price of Russian wheat.
Accordingly, Russia exploited its role as protector of the Principalities to let the Danube silt up, sabotaging the possible market competitor. As a result of this as well as „Russian foot-dragging on the economy”, the boyars too became increasingly resentful of Russian domination. The rapid erosion of public relations with Russia led to a revolution in , in which the newly emerging Romanian intellectual and political class sought the help of the Ottomans, their old hegemon, to drive out Russian influence—although, after pressure applied by Russia, the Russian and Ottoman armies joined forces to squash the movement.
Norway’s diplomatic and cultural ties with the West have complicated continuing relations with Russia. Russian officials escalated the tensions. In Finland, anti-Russian sentiment has been studied since the s. The history of anti-Russian sentiment has two main theories.
One of them claims that Finns and Russians have been archenemies throughout history. The position is considered to have been dominated at least the s since the days of the Greater Wrath. This view largely assumes that through the centuries, „Russia is a violent slayer and Finland is an innocent, virginal victim”.
France has a longstanding historical relation with Russia dating back from Middle Ages even though both countries started to establish stronger diplomatic ties not before the westward expansion of Russia under the Romanov Dynasty from the 18th century. Relations between France and Russia varied depending the periods but anti-Russian sentiment was common in France after the French defeat by the Russians in the War. Hitler believed that „the organization of a Russian state formation was not the result of the political abilities of the Slavs in Russia, but only a wonderful example of the state-forming efficacity of the German element in an inferior race.
After the invasion of the Soviet Union , Hitler expressed his plans for the Slavs: As for the ridiculous hundred million Slavs, we will mold the best of them as we see fit, and we will isolate the rest of them in their pig-styes; and anyone who talks about cherishing the local inhabitants and civilizing them, goes straight off into a concentration camp! Plans to eliminate Russians and other Slavs from Soviet territory to allow German settlement included starvation. American historian Timothy D. Snyder maintains that there were 4. Influenced by the guidelines, in a directive sent out to the troops under his command, General Erich Hoepner of the 4th Panzer Army stated:
The war against Russia is an important chapter in the German nation’s struggle for existence. It is the old battle of the Germanic against the Slavic people, of the defense of European culture against Muscovite-Asiatic inundation and the repulse of Jewish Bolshevism.
The objective of this battle must be the demolition of present-day Russia and must, therefore, be conducted with unprecedented severity. Every military action must be guided in planning and execution by an iron resolution to exterminate the enemy remorselessly and totally. In particular, no adherents of the contemporary Russian Bolshevik system are to be spared.
This competition for spheres of influence and colonies see, e. British propaganda at the time took up the theme of Russians as uncultured Asiatic barbarians. Rudyard Kipling , especially popular in Russia for his The Ballad of East and West poem and The Adventures of Mowgli animation that was referenced by Putin in ,  has also applied the term ‘ Oriental ‘, in its derogatory meaning, to the Russian people. In The Man Who Was , never translated to Russian , he wrote: „Let it be clearly understood that the Russian is a delightful person till he tucks in his shirt.
As an Oriental he is charming.
It is only when he insists upon being treated as the most easterly of western peoples instead of the most westerly of easterns that he becomes a racial anomaly extremely difficult to handle. The host never knows which side of his nature is going to turn up next”. The American professor Jimmie E. Cain Jr has stated that these views were then exported to other parts of the world and were reflected in the literature of late the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Up until the establishment of the Soviet Union , the United States had a cordial relationship with the Russian Empire. With the collapse of the Tsarist government, the relationship has turned into a hostile one. This time, instead of recovery, Russia’s public image experienced progressively more severe deterioration.
The sharper distaste among the Democrat population stands in contrast to the prior history of American public opinion on Russia, as Republicans were formerly more likely to view Russia as a greater threat. Recent events such as the Anti-Magnitsky bill ,  the Boston Marathon bombing  Russia’s actions following the Ukrainian crisis ,  the Syrian Civil War , the alleged allegations of Russian interference in the United States elections , the mistreatment of LGBT people in Russia following the passage of a anti-LGBT propaganda law in the country, the seizure and destruction of banned Western food imports in Russia starting in August, , and the alleged collusion between Donald Trump ‘s presidential campaign and Russia  are many examples of events which have been deemed to have caused a rising negative impression about Russia in the United States.
If that doesn’t make you uncomfortable, I’m not sure what to tell you.
Russians and Russian Americans are usually portrayed as ruthless agents, brutal mobsters and villains in Hollywood movies. Khrushcheva wrote: „Normally, I would not side with the Kremlin. But I cannot help wondering whether the Russophobia found in some segments of America’s political class and media has become pathological.
The history of early anti-Russian sentiment in New Zealand was analyzed in Glynn Barratt’s book Russophobia in New Zealand, ,  expanded to cover the period up to in an article by Tony Wilson. According to Wilson, negative attitude towards the Russian Empire had no roots in the country itself but was fueled by the attitude of the British Empire , at a time when New Zealand was still a British colony. It was aggravated by lack of information about Russia and contacts with it due to the mutual remoteness.
Various wars involving the Russian Empire fueled the „Russian scare”.
The new negative attitude was brought by Jewish immigration after Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire. That immigration was halted as a combined result of Russophobia and anti-Semitism. As of , there were settlers of Russian origin in the country, including Jews. During World War I anti-Russian sentiment was temporarily supplanted by anti-German sentiment for evident reasons; however, soon after the Russian Revolution of , the fear of Marxism and Bolshevism revived Russophobia in the form of ” Red Scare „.
Notably, local Russians had no issues with Russophobia. By late s pragmatism moderated anti-Russian sentiment in official circles, especially during the Great Depression.
Sympathetic views were propagated by visitors to the Soviet Union , such as George Bernard Shaw , impressed by Soviet propaganda. Rudolph P. Among those killed in the massacre was the newly appointed Russian ambassador to Iran, Aleksander Griboyedov , a celebrated playwright. Griboyedov had previously played an active role in negotiating the terms of the treaty of In , negative attitudes to Russia among the Iranian opposition was also observed due to Russian support of the Iranian government.
According to the Jamestown Foundation , while previously not known for being anti-Russian, Kazakhstan since independence has grown increasingly hostile to both Russia and China. Russian commentator Yaroslav Razumov alleges that „anti-Russian articles are a staple of the Kazakh media”. At this point, with the Qing dynasty plagued by its own civil wars, Russia expanded and asserted their hegemony by conquering Outer Manchuria.
The Soviet Union waged the war against China, which ended in Soviet victory. Nowadays however, anti-Russian sentiment in China has greatly downgraded, due to perceived common anti-Western sentiment among Russian and Chinese nationalists. Historically, Russia and Turkey fought several wars and had caused great devastation for each nation. During the old Tsardom of Russia , the Ottomans often raided and attacked Russian villagers. With the transformation into Russian Empire , Russia started to expand and clashed heavily with the Turks; which Russia often won more than lost, and reduced the Ottoman Empire heavily.
The series of wars had manifested the ideas among the Turks that Russia wanted to turn Turkey into a vassal state, leading to a high level of Russophobia in Turkey.
Anti-Russian sentiment started to increase again since , following the event of the Syrian Civil War. Russia supports the Government of Bashar al-Assad , while Turkey supports the Free Syrian Army and had many times announced their intentions to overthrow Assad, once again strained the relations.
Turkish media have promoted Russophobic news about Russian ambitions in Syria, and this has been the turning point of remaining poor relations although two nations have tried to re-approach their differences. Turkish military operations in Syria against Russia and Assad-backed forces also damage the relations deeply. Most Japanese interaction with Russian individuals — besides in major cities such as Tokyo — happens with seamen and fishermen of the Russian fishing fleet , therefore Japanese people tend to carry the stereotypes associated with sailors over to Russians.
In May and June , Russian media cited discrimination against Russian companies as one possible reason why the contemplated merger between the Luxembourg-based steelmaker Arcelor and Russia’s Severstal did not finalize.
According to the Russian daily Izvestiya , those opposing the merger „exploited the ‘Russian threat’ myth during negotiations with shareholders and, apparently, found common ground with the Europeans” ,  while Boris Gryzlov , speaker of the State Duma observed that „recent events show that someone does not want to allow us to enter their markets. Some Russian and Western commentators express concern about a far too negative coverage of Russia in Western media some Russians even describe this as a „war of information”. Or at least that critical views need to be supplemented with other kinds of information and analysis. An openness to different views is still warranted.
In February , the Russian creativity agency E-generator put together a „rating of Russophobia” of Western media, using for the research articles concerning a single theme—Russia’s chairmanship of G8, translated into Russian by InoSmi.
The score was composed for each edition, negative values granted for negative assessments of Russia, and positive values representing positive ones. California -based international relations scholar Andrei Tsygankov has remarked that anti-Russian political rhetoric coming from Washington circles has received wide echo in American mainstream media, asserting that „Russophobia’s revival is indicative of the fear shared by some U. In practice, anti-Russian political rhetoric usually puts emphasis on highlighting policies and practices of the Russian government that are criticised internally – corruption , abuse of law, censorship , violence and intervention in Ukraine.
In defence of this rhetoric, some sources critical of the Russian government claim that it is Russian state-owned media and administration who attempt to discredit the „neutral” criticism by generalizing it into indiscriminate accusations of the whole Russian population – or Russophobia. Glenn Greenwald of The Intercept wrote in February that the „East Coast newsmagazines” in the United States are „feeding Democrats the often xenophobic, hysterical Russophobia for which they have a seemingly insatiable craving. Russian responses to outside anti-Russian criticism has intensified the growth of contemporary Russian nationalist ideology. The West being accused of Russophobia is a major part of their belief.
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Results of Pew Research Center poll. See also: Generalplan Ost. See also: Armenia—Russia relations. See also: Azerbaijan—Russia relations and Black January. See also: Estonia—Russia relations and Russians in Estonia. See also: Latvia—Russia relations and Russians in Latvia.
See also: Lithuania—Russia relations and Russians in Lithuania. See also: Czech Republic—Russia relations. See also: Romania—Russia relations. See also: Norway—Russia relations. See also: France—Russia relations. See also: Russia—United Kingdom relations. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. August See also: Russia—United States relations. See also: Kazakhstan—Russia relations.
See also: History of Sino-Russian relations.
Retrieved 6 March The American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved 27 December Fischel – The policy of Lebensraum was also the product of Nazi racial ideology, which held that the Slavic peoples of the east were inferior to the Aryan race. Snyder states „4. Europa-Universitat Viadrina Frankfurt Oder. Retrieved 5 April Journalism Studies. S2CID Estonian National Museum. Archived from the original PDF on May 24, Retrieved October 14, Journal of Peace Research.
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Belarus[a] officially the Republic of Belarus[b] is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe. It is bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Euu to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Covering an area ofsquare kilometres 80, sq mi and with a population of 9. The country is administratively Rus beat eu nu neg into jeg regions. Minsk is the capital and largest city. Until the 20th century, different states at various times controlled the lands of modern-day Belarus, including Kievan Rus’the Principality of Polotskthe Grand Duchy of Lithuaniathe Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealthand the Russian Empire.
In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution indifferent states arose competing for legitimacy amidst Ruz Civil Warultimately ending in the rise of the Byelorussian SSRwhich became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union in Much of the borders of Belarus took their modern shape inwhen some lands Rus beat eu nu neg the Second Polish Republic were reintegrated into it after the Soviet invasion of Polandbear were finalized after World War II.
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Albania Algérie Andorra Armenia Argentina Aruba Australia Azerbaijan Bahrain Belgium Беларусь/Belarus Bosnia And Herzegovina Brasil България / Bulgaria Canada Chile MAINLAND CHINA / 中国大陆 Hong Kong SAR / 香港特別行政區 Macau SAR / 澳門特別行政區 Taiwan, China / 中國台灣 Colombia Costa Rica Cyprus Česká republika Danmark Deutschland / Germany Ecuador. Vestas is the energy industry’s global partner on sustainable energy solutions. We design, manufacture, install, and service wind turbines across the globe, and with + GW of wind turbines in 83 countries, we have installed more wind power than anyone else. The best place to watch dub and sub anime online and absolitely for free – KissAnime. With over different animes – KissAnime is the best source for anime streaming.
Anti-Russian sentimentalso referred to as Russophobiadescribes prejudice, fear or hatred against Russiathe Russiansand their culture. In the past, anti-Russian sentiment has included state-sponsored mistreatment of Russians. Nazi Germany deemed Russians, and other Slavsan inferior race and subhuman. In the present, a variety of mass culture clichés and negative stereotypes about Russians exist. Some individuals may have prejudice or hatred against Russians due to history, Rus beat eu nu neg, propaganda, or ingrained stereotypes and hatred.